This is an effect that seems to be becoming popular lately, particularly with music videos. I’ve seen it in movies before, often to suggest some kind of mental haze the protagonist in the story might be feeling at any given time. It’s an interesting effect, and the principle is quite simple, although it can take some practice to pull it off effectively.
Essentially, it’s a timelapse, but with the camera moving in a way you’d expect it to move for video. Not along a slider or something. In this video, Justin Odisho explains the basics of how to shoot this kind of footage, and then how to edit it in Premiere Pro with a few ways to integrate it into your realtime footage.