When I started to use artificial lighting, The Inverse Square Law was my nemesis. Not only it is not intuitive, but it is also not linear, and visualizing how a strobe distance from a subject will impact the photo is not trivial to say the least.
Photographer Derrick Bias shared a few priceless photos that show the exact impact that moving a strobe away fro ma subject has.
One trivial effect, of course it the fact that less light hits the model, but light fall off, background to model illumination ratio and overall contrast also play a part in this game. While I encourage everyone to take the time to learn The Inverse Square Law, and its impact on your photos these photos will provide an instant reference point if you are just starting out.