How To Photograph Spiky Fireworks With Long Exposure

David Johnson’s photo series of long exposure fireworks with a focus pull technique have gone viral around the web. Many people have been asking about the exact technique and settings, so I thought I’d construct a quick tutorial of how to produce photos like these. This is a How I Took It Contest entry.

Long Exposure Fireworks Tutorial

Gear List


Know your lens, and know the limit. Know EXACTLY when the focus will be tack-sharp on fireworks (just a smidgen before infinity)

Tripod must be sturdy, and using a shutter release in BULB mode is ideal (these shots were using the on-camera shutter button)


  • Varied ISO: from 100 to 400
  • Varied F-Stop: f2.8 – f7.1
  • Varied Shutter: 1s – 2s (BULB mode)

Taking The Shot

1. Prepare: when you hear/see a firework shooting into the air, try as hard as you can to predict where it will explode.

2. Begin the exposure shortly before you predict the explosion. Start OUT OF FOCUS

3. When the fireworks explode, quickly refocus your lens throughout the explosion until you reach the tack-sharp focal point, where the fireworks will be in focus.

4. Once the perfect focus is achieved, END THE EXPOSURE by releasing the shutter button (bulb mode)

You will quickly see how the out-of-focus light refocuses and converges to a small point… creating floating sea creatures in the sky!

By varying the aperture (f-stop) size, the width of the tentacles changes.
If you use a 7.1 aperture, the out of focus light will be thin and sharper, and as it converges the tentacles will be long and thin. If you use an aperture like 2.8, the tentacles are thick and very large, creating and entirely different feel to the image.

Using the neutral density filter is crucial as trying to capture something as bright as fireworks with a bright f-stop (like 2.8) results in overexposure where the true colour content of the fireworks gets dissolved into white.

Here are some examples & settings used for the images.

Long Exposure Fireworks Tutorial
ISO 100 – f5 – 1s exposure – 50mm – 5DMkII

For this exposure of a flower-like firework, I began the exposure early as to capture the ‘stem’ of the flower (the partially illuminated spark of a pre-detonated firework). When the firework exploded, I refocused to a fine point and ended the exposure.

Long Exposure Fireworks Tutorial
ISO 100 – f8 – 1s exposure – 50mm – 5DMkII

This exposure was much like the previous, with the exception that I began the exposure immediately before the explosion… no ‘stem’ for the flower in this shot. The thinner petals on the flower are the result of the smaller aperture (f/8)

Long Exposure Fireworks Tutorial
ISO 100 – f2.8 – 1s exposure – 50mm – 5DMkII

This is a prime example of what an aperture of 2.8 will give you. You can barely see any tentacles on this ‘microscopic virus’, because the refocusing technique was used quickly and precise. The sparkles were a convenient addition from the previous explosion. This is why timing is so crucial.

The opposite effect can be achieved by beginning the exposure and the lens IN FOCUS and refocusing to OUT OF FOCUS to become blurry. This effect is present in the next few examples:

Long Exposure Fireworks Tutorial
ISO 100 – f8 – 4s exposure – 50mm – 5DMkII

This exposure began in focus, and refocused out during the exposure. The tight aperture allowed for a crisp and detailed entrance into the explosion, with blurry tails coming afterwards. The 4s exposure was solely due to a quick unexpected break in the fireworks… so I patiently waited until the next explosion before ending the exposure.

Long Exposure Fireworks Tutorial
ISO 100 – f5.6 – 2s exposure – 50mm – 5DMkII

Here is a very dramatic outcome to using the opposite technique. This photo came from the finale of the show, where several fireworks exploded at the same time… allowing me to have the same effect on each one. I began in focus, and refocused quickly to create this scary colourful space monster. This is one of my favourites.

For these photos, LIMITED EDITING WAS REQUIRED. To get the most out of the photo, it helps to have an entirely black background… so because of this, here was my process to retouch the photos:

  • -Contrast +15%
  • Bring the ‘blacks’ slider down and make sure you don’t lose detail in the process
  • Mild saturation (+5%), make sure not to cap out any of the colours in oversaturation…. looks very fake that way

I hope to see more of this technique used in the future…. I’m definitely not the first person to use it, but I’ve found with precise timing and effective use of the focus-pull you can create something as exciting as this.

  • Dedi Kurniawan

    COOL Tehnic!

  • Ruslan K

    Amazing :) Cool idea ^_^

  • Motors

    not bad :)

  • Bernard

    Hi how to do the focus on? do it manually by spinning the ring focus?

  • george

    Nothing like giving back and teaching….. thanks

  • Dick Standin

    Looks like every piece of rubbish finds its bin…but interesting for 5sec

    • Sean

      Looks like every troll finds it’s post…not least bit interesting for 1 sec.

  • Estrella


  • Andrew
  • Stanislas Giroux

    Hi there ! Thanks for sharing this knowledge.
    I tried to improve this technique not to make a still picture but a video :
    Tell me what you think of it !

    • udi tirosh

      awesome stuff! saw you got Stuff picks! congrats.

  • Spencer Hughes
  • Nathalia Soares

    thank you so much for the explanation, i was searching for and all my doubts were answered.

  • Ian

    In action: Abstract and Realist Firework Photos: Independence Day

  • Filippo Boatto
  • Steve Solis

    Lesson #9 Lilly Figueroa But I don’t like to ruin fireworks presentations. They’re beautiful just they way they are.

  • Wayne Palmer Jr.

    Nintendo and super Mario bros come to mind whenever I see this.

  • Katelyn Hall

    Jessica Gandy Peppers you need to try this!

  • Michal Rosa

    Thanks, can’t believe it – a tutorial that’s useful and original.

  • Dale Looft

    Thanks for the great info. Made the fireworks show a real joy to not only see in person, but to see what was created in camera.

  • James West

    It’s the first step that kills me. I can never quite figure where the ruddy things will explode properly!!!